Annex A-Group Research Proposal



Group Project Proposal (Science) 
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE 

Names:Shakthi,Sahithya,Linda 
Class: S2-08 

Group Reference: E

1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research




[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)




[ X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)



[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics




[    ] Observational and exploratory research




[    ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research




Introduction


It is often that the temperature of light bulbs change over time with the heating effect of the light bulb. As heating effect lead to rise in temperature, is it possible that the brightness of the bulb changes? Forsythe and Worthing (1925) conducted a study to determine the variation with temperature of the energy radiated per cm2 of tungsten filament lamps. The temperatures from 300°K to 1500°K were measured by the resistance method, from 1500°K to 3655°K using  optical pyrometer. The rate of radiation varied from a value of 0.000016 watts/cm2 at 300°K to 399.4 at 3655°K. Thus, experimental evidence indicates that the brightness of filament lamp increases with the rise in temperature.
A fluorescent lamp is a low-pressure gas discharge lamp that uses fluorescence of   mercury vapor to produce visible light. The electric current in the gas excites mercury vapor that produces short-wave ultraviolet light that makes the phosphor coating on the inside of the bulb to glow.  The light output and performance of fluorescent lamps are affected by the temperature of the bulb wall and its effect on the partial pressure of mercury vapor within the lamp (Kane & Sell, 2001).
The thesis by Wang et al. (2008) experimentally demonstrates luminous efficiency of large-area, high-power blue-light LEDs. The results indicate that when operation temperature increases from 327 K to 380K, the light efficiency of LED decreases 20%. As the temperature affects the brightness of the light bulbs, it seems logical that the heating effect of using a bulb for long duration could affect the brightness of light bulbs. The aim of the experiment was to find out whether there would be any change in the brightness of the light bulbs due to the heating effect. Three different types of bulbs; filament, fluorescent, LED to compare the results for different types of bulbs.


A student wanted to find out the effect of temperature on different types of lightbulbs.The independent variable is temperature.
The dependant variable is the brightness of the light bubbles.
The constants are:
The distance between the light bulb and the sensor.
The electromotive force of batteries (if necessary)
Distance of the extent to which the light bulb is inserted into the cardboard box
The cardboard box should always be closed when readings are being taken



B. Hypothesis


The temperature increase will cause the brightness of the light bulbs to decrease.

C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.) 

Equipment list: 

- 2 cardboard boxes
- scissors
- pen knife
- ruler, measuring tape
- 4 filament light bulbs
- 2 fluorescent light bulbs ( warm light, cool daylight)
- 1 LED lightbulb
- light bulb holders for all the different kinds of light bulbs
- Lux meter
- Tape
- Timer
-Infrared thermometer



• Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection


1. Take 2 cardboard boxes and put it on the table where we will be conducting our experiment on.


                           






2. Measure the dimensions of the filament bulb holder. (diameter of the holder)

3.  Take 1 of the boxes. Cut out a hole in the middle of the box according to the dimensions taken in step 2.


                  




4.Insert the filament light bulb in the hole.


               


5. Measure the dimensions of the light sensor. (The diameter of the light sensor)





                          
   








6. On the same box we used for step 3, cut out a hole based on the dimensions took in step 4, on the opposite side of the box.



7.Insert the light sensor in the hole.


  
                      
8. Take the other box, and repeat steps 2,3,4,5,6 and 7.


9. Let the wire of the lux meter and the display of data logger stay out of the box.


                     

10.Before the experiment begins, take down the temperature of each of the bulbs using the infrared thermometer.

                 
   



11. Switch on the light,the lux meter and the datalogger at the same time.
                  


12.Close both the boxes and begin the timer for both

              
 
13.Every 0.5 hour, record the results on the lux meter into the datalogger.
                      


14.Every 0.5 hour, measure and take down the temperature of each light bulb.

                                



15. After 3 hours, switch off the light bulb and lux meter.

                              

16. Now we have 2 results for just one type of bulb.


17. Take these results and take the average.


18. Plot the data in a table and a graph.


19. Repeat steps 2-18 for LED light bulbs.


20.Repeat the steps 2-18 for the fluorescent light bulbs.

• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

1. Looking directly at the lightbulb may harm the eyes.Therefore, we should avoid looking at the lightbulb as far as possible.


2. When the lightbulb overheats, refrain from touching it and wait for it to cool down.


3.Avoid pointing the laser of the infrared thermometer directly at the eye or indirectly off reflective surfaces.


• Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses


1. Tabulate the brightness and temperature for each light bulb. (LED,fluorescent,filament)
2. For each data table, plot the temperature on the x-axis and the light intensity on the y-axis
3. From the graph,we can find out if our hypothesis is correct.


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.



Clips, S. (2007, October 11). How voltage affects the illumination of light bulbs. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/clips/zxdg9j6


Damir Beciri.(2012, June 8).Longevity of light bulbs and how to make them last longer | RobAid. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.robaid.com/gadgets/longevity-of-light-bulbs-and-how-to-make-them-last-longer.htm,


Encyclopedia, W. (2015, February 10). Fluorescent lamp. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent_lamp


Encyclopedia, W. (2015, February 10). Compact fluorescent lamp. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_fluorescent_lamp


Encyclopedia, W. (2015, February 4). Incandescent light bulb. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incandescent_light_bulb


Encyclopedia, W. (2015, February 10). Temperature. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature


Elert, G. (2015, February 11). Temperature of an Incandescent Light Bulb. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/AlexanderEng.shtml


Forsythe, W. E., & Worthing, A. (1925). The properties of tungsten and the characteristics of tungsten lamps. The Astrophysical Journal, 61, 146.


Harris, T. (2009). How Light Emitting Diodes Work. Retrieved May 15, 2009, from http:// electronics.howstuffworks.com/led.htm


Harris,T. (2002,19 February). How Light Bulbs Work. Retrieved 12 February 2015, from http://home.howstuffworks.com/light-bulb.htm


Improvement, H. (2015, February 11). Fluorescent (CFL) vs Incandescent Bulbs. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Fluorescent_Bulbs_vs_Incandescent_Bulbs


Institute, R. (2006). How is performance affected by ambient temperature? | High-Wattage Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Lighting Answers | NLPIP. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/lightinganswers/hwcfl/hwcfl-thermal-performance1.asp


Jones, A. (2015, February 11). Definition of Temperature. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://physics.about.com/od/glossary/g/temperature.htm


Kane, R., & Sell, H. (2001). Revolution in lamps: a chronicle of 50 years of progress: The Fairmont Press, Inc.


Morris, D. (2014, October 25). Why does LED brightness decrease with temperature. Retrieved January 31, 2015, from https://www.ifixit.com/Answers/View/30987/Why does LED brightness decrease with temperature


NDT. (2015, January 31). Stability of Penetrants. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from   https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/PenetrantTest/PTMaterials/stabilityofpenetrants.htm


Rouse, M. (2005, September 1). Light-emitting diode (LED). Retrieved February 1, 2015, from http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/light-emitting-diode-LED


Science Buddies Stuff. (2014, October 24). Wire Wilt: How Light-Emitting Diodes Fade As Temperature Increases. Retrieved January 10, 2015 from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Elec_p060.shtml


Science, P. (1940, January 1). Popular Science. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://books.google.com.sg/books?id=1iYDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA136&dq=popular#v=onepage&q=popular&f=false


Wang, J., Huang, X., Liu, L., WU, Q., CHU, Ming-hui., ZHANG, Li-gong., Hou, Feng-qin., et al. (2008). Effect of temperature and current on LED luminous efficiency. Chinese journal of luminescence, 29(2), 358.


Whitaker, T. (2005, May). Fact or Fiction—LEDs don't produce heat. Retrieved May 14, 2009, from http://www.ledsmagazine.com/features/2/5/8


Johns. W. E.(2003, January 1).Notes on LEDs.Retrieved January 14, 2015, from http://www.gizmology.net/


Curran, W.J. (2015, January 31). The Limitations of LED Lighting. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from http://www.sitelighting.com/TechTalk/Sub_Level_2_request.cfm?%20TL=9YX72113&SL=9YX72113&dsplyID=60


Woodruff, D. (2015, February 11). Experts you should follow. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://www.answers.com/Q/Factors_which_effect_the_brightness_of_a_light_bulb

 

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